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appendix A

Language Summary


This appendix contains a summary or quick reference for the Java language, as described in this book.

Technical Note
This is not a grammar overview, nor is it a technical overview of the language itself. It's a quick reference to be used after you already know the basics of how the language works. If you need a technical description of the language, your best bet is to visit the Java Web site ( and download the actual specification, which includes a full BNF grammar.

Language keywords and symbols are shown in a monospace font. Arguments and other parts to be substituted are in italic monospace.

Optional parts are indicated by brackets (except in the array syntax section). If there are several options that are mutually exclusive, they are shown separated by pipes ([|]) like this:

[ public | private | protected ] type varname

Reserved Words

The following words are reserved for use by the Java language itself (some of them are reserved but not currently used). You cannot use these words to refer to classes, methods, or variable names:

abstract floatpublic
boolean forreturn
break gotoshort
byte ifstatic
case implementssuper
catch importswitch
char instanceofsynchronize
class intthis
const interfacethrow
continue longthrows
do nativetransient
double newtry
else nullvoid
extends packavolatilege
final privatewhile
finally protected  


/* this is a multiline comment */
// this is a single-line comment
/** Javadoc comment */


number Type int
number[l | L] Type long
0xhex Hex integer
0Xhex Hex integer
0octal Octal integer
[ number ].number Type double
number[ f | f] Type float
number[ d | D] Type double
[ + | - ] number Signed
numberenumber Exponent
numberEnumber Exponent
'character' Single character
"characters" String
"" Empty string
\b Backspace
\t Tab
\n Line feed
\f Form feed
\r Carriage return
\" Double quote
\' Single quote
\\ Backslash
\uNNNN Unicode escape (NNNN is hex)
true Boolean
false Boolean

Variable Declaration

[ byte | short | int | long ] varname Integers (pick one type)
[ float | double ] varname Floats (pick one type)
char varname Characters
boolean varname Boolean
classname varname Class types
interfacename varname Interface types
type varname, varname, varname Multiple variables

The following options are available only for class and instance variables. Any of these options can be used with a variable declaration:

[ static ] variableDeclaration Class variable
[ final ] variableDeclaration Constants
[ public | private | protected ] variableDeclaration Access control
[volatile] varname Modified asynchronously
[transient] varname Not persistent (not yet implemented)

Variable Assignment

variable = value Assignment
variable++ Postfix increment
++variable Prefix increment
variable-- Postfix decrement
--variable Prefix decrement
variable += value Add and assign
variable -= value Subtract and assign
variable *= value Multiply and assign
variable /= value Divide and assign
variable %= value Modulus and assign
variable &= value AND and assign
variable |= value OR and assign
variable ^= value XOR and assign
variable <<= value Left-shift and assign
variable >>= value Right-shift and assign
variable >>>= value Zero-fill right-shift and assign


arg + arg Addition
arg - arg Subtraction
arg * arg Multiplication
arg / arg Division
arg % arg Modulus
arg < arg Less than
arg > arg Greater than
arg <= arg Less than or equal to
arg >= arg Greater than or equal to
arg == arg Equal
arg != arg Not equal
arg && arg Logical AND
arg || arg Logical OR
! arg Logical NOT
arg & arg AND
arg | arg OR
arg ^ arg XOR
arg << arg Left-shift
arg >> arg Right-shift
arg >>> arg Zero-fill right-shift
~ arg Complement
(type)thing Casting
arg instanceof class Instance of
test ? trueOp : falseOp Ternary (if) operator


new class() Creates new instance
new class(arg,arg,arg...) New instance with parameters
object.variable Instance variable
object.classvar Class variable
Class.classvar Class variable
object.method() Instance method (no args)
object.method(arg,arg,arg...) Instance method
object.classmethod() Class method (no args)
object.classmethod(arg,arg,arg...) Class method
Class.classmethod() Class method (no args)
Class.classmethod(arg,arg,arg...) Class method


The brackets in this section are parts of the array creation or access statements. They do not denote optional parts as they do in other parts of this appendix.

Type varname[] Array variable
type[] varname Array variable
new type[numElements] New array object
array[index] Element access
array.length Length of array

Loops and Conditionals

if ( test) block Conditional
if ( test ) block else block Conditional with else
switch (test) {
    case value : statements
    case value : statements
    default : statement
switch (only with integer or char types)
for (initializer; test; change ) block for loop
while ( test ) block while loop
do block

while (test)

do loop
break [ label ] break from loop or switch
continue [ label ] continue loop
label: Labeled loop

Class Definitions

class classname block Simple class definition
Any of the following optional modifiers can be added to the class definition:
[ final ] class classname block Cannot be subclassed
[ abstract ] class classname block Cannot be instantiated
[ public ] class classname block Accessible outside package
class classname [ extends Superclass ] block Define superclass
class classname [ implements interfaces ] block Implement one or more interfaces

Method and Constructor Definitions

The basic method looks like this, where returnType is a type name, a class name, or void.

ReturnType methodName() block Basic method
returnType methodName(parameter, parameter, ...) block Method with parameters

Method parameters look like this:

type parameterName

Method variations can include any of the following optional keywords:

[ abstract ] returnType methodName() block Abstract method
[ static ] returnType methodName() block Class method
[ native ] returnType methodName() block Native method
[ final ] returnType methodName() block final method
[ synchronized ] returnType methodName() block Thread lock before executing
[ public | private | protected ] returnType methodName() Access control

Constructors look like this:

classname() block Basic constructor
classname(parameter, parameter, parameter...) block Constructor with parameters
[ public | private | protected] classname() block Access control

In the method/constructor body you can use these references and methods:

this Refers to current object
super Refers to superclass
super.methodName() Calls a superclass's method
this(...) Calls class's constructor
super(...) Calls superclass's constructor
return [ value ] Returns a value

Packages, Interfaces, and Importing

import package.className Imports specific class name
import package.* Imports all public classes in package

package packagename Classes in this file belong to this package

interface interfaceName [ extends anotherInterface ] block
[ public ] interface interfaceName block
[ abstract ] interface interfaceName block

Exceptions and Guarding

synchronized ( object ) block Waits for lock on object

try block Guarded statements
catch ( exception ) block Executed if exception is thrown
[ finally block ] Cleanup code

try block
[ catch ( exception ) block ]
finally block
Same as previous example (can use optional catch or finally, or both)